«Energy Technologies and Resource Saving» 3-2017
Soroka B.S., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Horupa V.V.
The Gas Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev
39, Degtiarivska Str., 03113 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Scientific and Engineering Principles of Efficient Fuel Use and Environmentally Friendly Gas Combustion in Stove Plates. Part 1. Modern State-Of-The-Art and Directions for Improvement the Gas Burning in Domestic Gas Cookers
Natural gas NG consumption in industry and energy of Ukraine, in recent years falls down as a result of the crisis in the country’s economy, to a certain extent due to the introduction of renewable energy sources along with alternative technologies, while in the utility sector the consumption of fuel gas flow rate enhancing because of an increase the number of consumers. The natural gas is mostly using by domestic purpose for heating of premises and for cooking. These items of the gas utilization in Ukraine are already exceeding the NG consumption in industry. Cooking is proceeding directly in the living quarters, those usually do not meet the requirements of the Ukrainian norms DBN for the ventilation procedures. NG use in household gas stoves is of great importance from the standpoint of controlling the emissions of harmful components of combustion products along with maintenance the satisfactory energy efficiency characteristics of NG using. The main environment pollutants when burning the natural gas in gas stoves are including the nitrogen oxides NOx (to a greater extent — highly toxic NO2 component), carbon oxide CO, formaldehyde CH2O as well as hydrocarbons (unburned UHC and polyaromatic PAH). An overview of environmental documents to control CO and NOx emissions in comparison with the proper norms by USA, EU, Russian Federation, Australia and China, has been completed. The modern designs of the burners for gas stoves are considered along with defining the main characteristics: heat power, the natural gas flow rate, diameter of gas orifice, diameter and spacing the firing openings and other parameters. The modern physical and chemical principles of gas combustion by means of atmospheric ejection burners of gas cookers have been analyzed from the standpoints of combustion process stabilization and of ensuring the stability of flares. Among the factors of the firing process destabilization within the framework of analysis above mentioned, the following forms of unstable combustion/flame unstabilities have been considered: flashback, blow out or flame lifting, and the appearance of flame yellow tips. Bibl. 37, Fig. 11, Tab. 7.
Key words: domestic gas cookers, ejection burners, flashback, blow out or flame lifting, yellow tips of the flame, primary air axcess.
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Kovalyshyn B.M., Candidate of Technical Sciences
National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev
12, Geroiv Oborony Str., 03041 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: email@example.com
The Role of Electrical Activation of Molecules Reagents Combustion Reaction in the Energy Efficiency of Fuel Combustion Installations with a Propane-Butane Mixture and Natural Gas
The state energy efficiency problems of fuel installations on hydrocarbons where analyzed. Shown connection energy fuel systems on hydrocarbon fuels with electrical activation and polarized molecules reagents in the field of pulsed high voltage. The results of experimental studies on the use of molecules reagents electrical activation of combustion reaction at burning propane-butane mixture and natural gas in the air. The obtained experimental results prove the effectiveness of electrical activation of molecules reagent of the combustion to improve fuel systems efficiency for hydrocarbon carriers. With us was formulated the concept of energy efficiency ricing of fuel plants, which is to increase energy efficiency by increasing the heat output of fuel combusted in the compensation of thermal energy that is spent on thermical activation molecules reagents combustion reaction, energy from other energy factors. Bibl. 11, Fig. 4.
Key words: fuel, energy efficiency, electrical field, high voltage, activation, polarization.
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Moraru V.N., Candidate of Chemical Sciences
The Gas Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev
39, Degtyarivska Str., 03113 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Mechanism of Raising And Quantification of Specific Heat Flux at Boiling of Nanofluids in Free Convection Conditions
The results of our work and a number of foreign studies indicate that the sharp increase in the heat transfer parameters (specific heat flux q and heat transfer coefficient _) at the boiling of nanofluids as compared to the base liquid (water) is due not only and not so much to the increase of the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids, but an intensification of the boiling process caused by a change in the state of the heating surface, its topological and chemical properties (porosity, roughness, wettability). The latter leads to a change in the internal characteristics of the boiling process and the average temperature of the superheated liquid layer. This circumstance makes it possible, on the basis of physical models of the liquids boiling and taking into account the parameters of the surface state (temperature, pressure) and properties of the coolant (the density and heat capacity of the liquid, the specific heat of vaporization and the heat capacity of the vapor), and also the internal characteristics of the boiling of liquids, to calculate the value of specific heat flux q. In this paper, the difference in the mechanisms of heat transfer during the boiling of single-phase (water) and two-phase nanofluids has been studied and a quantitative estimate of the q values for the boiling of the nanofluid is carried out based on the internal characteristics of the boiling process. The satisfactory agreement of the calculated values with the experimental data is a confirmation that the key factor in the growth of the heat transfer intensity at the boiling of nanofluids is indeed a change in the nature and microrelief of the heating surface. Bibl. 20, Fig. 9, Tab. 2.
Key words: nanofluids, heat transfer, heating surface, calculation of specific heat flux.
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Bilousova N.A., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Herasymenko Yu.S., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor,
Red’ko R.M., Yatsishina N.Yu.
National Technical University of Ukraine «Igor Sikorsky KyivPolytechnic Instiute», Kiev
37, build. 4, Peremohy Ave., 03056 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: email@example.com
Effect of Ultrasound on Scale Formation and Corrosion Protection of the Heat Exchange Surface
The processes of scale formation and corrosion on the surface of heat exchange using ultrasound with a frequency of 26.5 kHz of low power in the provisional and transient modes and without it were studied. The functional dependences of the build-up of the specific mass of the scale and the corrosion rate are established, depending on the ultrasonic irradiation regimes. The morphology and structure of the scaled layers formed by the scanning electron microscopy method are studied. It has been established that ultrasonic treatment of low intensity promotes the formation and maintenance of a phase microlayer with anticorrosion properties, which practically does not reduce the heat exhange between the metal surface and the coolant. Bibl. 8, Fig. 8.
Key words: ultrasound, scale formation, corrosion rate.
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Makarenko I.N., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Trus I.N., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Petrychenko A.I., Kiichenko A.Yu.
National Technical University of Ukraine «Igor Sikorsky Kiev Polytechnic Institute»
37, build. 4, Peremogy Ave., 03056 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Study of the Efficiency of Sorption Treatment Water from Ammonium Ions on Natural and Artificial Sorbents
It was studied processes of ion-exchange water purification from ammonium ions from model solutions on cation exchangers and on zeolite. It was established dependencies ammonium sorption on the form of ion exchanger, the ratio of ammonium and calcium in water and the level of ion concentrations in solution. It was shown that the strongly acid cation exchanger KU-2-8 in Na+-form has a low selectivity for ammonium ions, in comparison with the H+-form. It was established that the sorption efficiency of ammonium ions on cation exchangers KU-2-8 and Dowex Mac-3 decreases in the presence of calcium ions. It was determined that regeneration of cation exchanger KU-2-8 was more effective when hydrochloric acid solutions were used. It was shown that ammonium sorption on zeolite from tap water goes in the same way as from model solutions. It was determined the boundary capacity of the zeolite for ammonium ions and it was amounted 40 mg/g. The regeneration of zeolite with a sodium chloride solution was investigated and it was established that the degree of regeneration reached 100 %. Bibl. 16, Fig. 6, Tab. 1.
Key words: ion exchange, sorption, ammonium, calcium, regeneration, sorbent capacity, zeolite.
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10. Widiastuti Nurul. Removal of ammonium from greywater using natural zeolite, Desalination, 2011, 1132–1136. — http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S030438941000153
Volchyn I.A., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Kolomiets O.M., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Raschepkin V.A., Candidate of Technical Sciences
Coal Energy Technology Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev
19, Andriivska Str., 04070 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: email@example.com
An Alternative Solution to ESP Reconstruction for the Coal Firing Thermal Power Plants
The mathematical modeling is performed of the efficiency of flue gas cleaning from fly ash particles of coal-fired thermal power plants, upon installation of a preliminary flue gas cleaning system that consists of a louvered dust concentrator and a battery cyclone, with the recirculation of flue gas from the battery cyclone outlet to the electrostatic precipitator pre-chamber. Based on the available experimental data for the fractional composition of fly ash downstream the boilers of coal-fired TPPs, the size distribution functions were calculated, of fly ash particles at each stage of the preliminary dust-cleaning process, as well as concentrations and modified particle size distributions, to be further used as the input data for designing options and scope of the reconstruction of existing electrostatic precipitators. Bibl. 13, Fig. 3.
Key words: dedusting, fly ash, louvered dust concentrator, battery cyclone, electrostatic precipitator.
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7. [Reference book on dust and ash collecting], Ed. A.A.Rusanov, Moscow : Energoizdat, 1993, 312 p. (Rus.)
8. Shvydky V.S., Ladygichev M.G. [Gas cleaning : Reference work], Moscow : Teploenergetik, 2002, 640 p. (Rus.) 9. Flagan R.C., Seinfeld J.H. Fundamentals of Air Pollution Engineering, California : Institute of Technology. PRENTICE HALL, 1988, 542 ð.
10. Ziganshin M.G., Kolesnik A.A., Posokhin V.N. [Design of dust and flue gas devices], Moscow : Exress-3M, 1998, 505 p. (Rus.)
11. Kropp A.I., Akbrut L.I. [Ash collectors with Venturi tubes in thermal power plants], Moscow : Energia, 1977, 460 p. (Rus.)
12. Volchyn I.À., Raschepkin V.À. [Assessment of Acoustic Waves Attenuation in the Dusted Flows in the Boilers of Thermal Power Plants], Energotechnologii i Resursosberezhenie [Energy Technologies and Resource Saving], 2016 (3), ðð. 37–45. (Rus.)
13. Jinder Jow. Resource Utilization and Management of Fly Ash, Cornerstone, 2016 (4), Iss. 3, pp. 61–66.
Torchinskij A.I.1, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Ljashko A.Yu.1, Shkarlinskij O.F.2, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Chichua Z.3, Volobuev S.V.2
1 The Gas Institute of National Academy of Scienses of Ukraine, Kiev
39, Degtjarivska Str., 03113 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 «PROMGAZTEHNO», Kiev
3A, Of. 22, Shamrylo Str., 04112 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: email@example.com
3 «Metekhis ceramic», St. Metekhi
Kaspi, Str. Metekhi, Georgia, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Energy-saving Equipment Implementation in Tunnel Kiln for Ceramic Bricks Calcination
The analysis of the technical decisions used in the Bulgarian projects of tunnel kilns for ceramic brick calcination is carried out. Disadvantages, caused by out-of-date heating engineering equipment, are shown on an example of enterprise of «Metekhis ceramics», Georgia. Necessary measures of modernisation of tunnel kilns for ceramic brick calcination built by the Bulgarian projects are stated. The basis of modernisation – the substituting of out-of-date gas-burning devices by modern gas-burners; expansion of calcination zone due to installing of gas-burning devices on positions of preheating zone; implementation of modern automatic control systems for thermal and aerodynamic process adjustment. The principal scheme of the tunnel kiln for ceramic brick calcination including modern heating engineering equipment and automation of adjusting of thermal and aerodynamic mode is worked out. Explanations of advantages of modern equipment and modern automation system applying for quality improvement of manufactured products, increasing of a productivity of a tunnel kiln and reducing of specific consumption of natural gas are presented. Bibl. 5, Fig. 3.
Key words: tunnel kiln, ceramic bricks, gas-burning device, quality of calcination, modrnisation, heat-insulation vault.
1. Rogovoj M.I. Heating engineering equipment of ceramic plants, Moscow : Strojizdat, 1983, 367 p. (Rus.)
2. Pat. 28025 Ukr., MPK6 C 2 F 23D 14/00. Gas burner, A.I.Torchinskij, G.N.Pavlovskij, Publ. 16.10.2000, Bul. 5. 3. Pat. 27849 Ukr., MPK6 C 2 F 23D 14/00. Gas burner, A.I.Torchinskij, G.N.Pavlovskij, Yu.M. Velichko, Publ. 16.10.2000, Bul. 5.
4. Torchinskij A.I., Ljashko A.Yu., Sergienko A.A., Krjachok Yu.N. [Tunnel furnaces stock for ceramic brick manufacture modernization. 2. The furnaces heating system development], Energotechnologii i resursosberezhenie [Energy Technologies and Resource Saving], 2010, (2), pp. 57–60. (Rus.)
5. Torchinskij A.I., Ljashko A.Yu., Krjachok Yu.N. Tunnel furnaces stock for ceramic brick manufacture modernization. 3. The automatic control system development. Energotechnologii i resursosberezhenie [Energy Technologies and Resource Saving], 2011, (1), pp. 69–73. (Rus.)
Olabin V.M., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Maksymuk O.B., Candidate of Technical Sciences,
Trukhan S.P., Nikitina I.V.
The Gas Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev
39, Degtyarivska Str., 03113 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: email@example.com
Recuperators of Melting Bubbling Furnaces
Information on the use of tubular radiation recuperators on melting bubble furnaces is presented. The reasons that subsequently affect deterioration of the recuperators performance have been analyzed. New structure of the recuperators, in which a hanging top collector with a counterweight and appropriate loop-type expansion joints are applied to prevent uncontrolled deformation of heat-receiving pipes, have been designed based on the analysis of the operation of recuperators of melting bubbling furnaces. New design allows to increase efficiency of the recuperator application, cleaning and repair of the pipes are possible without dismantling of the stack brick work. Bibl. 6, Fig. 5, Tab. 2.
Key words: tubular radiation recuperator, bubbling furnace, degree of heat perception, adherence to pipes, fine layer of batch particles, thermal expansion, compensation of expansion.
1. Teben’kov B.P. Rekuperatory dlja promyshlennyh pechej [Recuperators for industrial furnaces], Moscow : Metallurgija, 1975, 296 p. (Rus.)
2. Lashenkov Yu.V., Volkov V.A., Tyurin A.I. Opyt proektirovanija i jekspluatacii trubchatyh radiacionnyh rekuperatorov [Experience of Design and Operation of Tubular Radiation Recuperators], Steklo i keramika [Glass and Ceramics], 1984, (4), pp. 18–20. (Rus.)
3. Olabin V.M., Goberis S.Yu., Marazas V.M. Opytnyj gazovyj plavil’nyj agregat dlja mineralovatnogo proizvodstva [Experimental gas melting whit for mineral wool production], Stroitel’nye materially, 1976, (11), pp. 11–12. (Rus.)
4. Larikov L.N., Yurchenko Yu.F. Struktura i svoistva metallov i splavov [Structure and properties of metals and alloys directory], Kiev : Naukova Dumka, 1985, 438 p. (Rus.)
5. Pat. 61863 Ukr., MPK F 23 D 14/12 (2006.01) [Tubular radiation recuperator], V.M.Olabin, O.B.Maksymuk, S.P.Trukhan, I.V.Nikitina, Publ. 25.07.2011, Bull. 14. (Ukr.)
6. Sevastianov M.I. [Technological pipelines of oil refinery and petrochemical plants], Moscow : Himija, 1972, 312 p. (Rus.)