«Energy Technologies and Resource Saving» 2-2016

 

Soroka B.S.1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Shandor P.2, PhD, Vorobiov M.V.1, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Karabchievskaya R.S.1

1 The Gas Institute of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev

39, Dehtiarivska Str., 03113 Kyiv, Ukraine, e-mail: boris.soroka@gmail.com

2 Optimum Energo-Ecology Ltd., Dunaujvaros, Hungary

 

Natural Gas Saving by Replacement the Last for Process Gases While Heating Middle and High Temperature Furaces. Part 2. Numerical Determination of Fuel Flow Rate, of Fuel Use Energy and Environmental Characterstics by Assignment of Fuel Type and Composition

 

The technique for calculation of need fuel flow rate and for proper combustion heat flow has been advanced in frame of new author’s (B.S. Soroka) methodology of fuel replacement that takes the second law of thermodynamics into account along with the first law. Method for calculation the rate of available enthalpy flow of fuel-oxidant mixture has been developed. An impact of fuel replacement on formation the harmful substances by gas fuels combustion in the furnaces has been studied. The concept of new approach to interchangeability of fuel gases is grounded upon condition of conservation the rate of useful total enthalpy flow under fuels substitution. The last value accounts the fuel use efficiency. Numerical calculations of saving or overexpenditure the natural gas (NG) for the cases of total or partial NG substitution by process gases have been fulfilled. The calculations of the available heat flows of fuel-oxidant mixture and of combustion heat flow of the analyzed low-calorific fuels have been carried out for the cases of NG replacement with the process gases depending on the content (volume fraction) of blast furnace gas (BFG) in mixtures with natural (NG + BFG) or coke oven (COG + BFG) gases. Evaluation of formation and of specific effluents of pollutants: carbon dioxide ѲCO2 as a greenhouse gas and nitrogen oxides C²NOx as the most representative harmful substance — has been carried out along with computations of fuel flow rate and with energy using characteristics of low calorific mixed fuels. Bibl.12, Fig. 7, Tab. 2.

Key words: alternative gas fuels; available thermal energy, blast furnace gas; substitution of fuels; coke oven gas, heat-treating furnace, natural gas saving, secondary energy resources, specific emissions of harmful substances.

 

References

 

1. Semenenko N.A., Cooperman L.I., Romanovsky S.A. Secondary energy sources and combination of energy- technologies in industry, Kiev : High School Publishing House, 1979, 296 pp. (Rus.).

2. Basic methodical positions on planning the use of secondary energy resources, Moscow : Energoatomisdat Publishing House, 1987, 64 pp. (Rus.).

3. Soroka B., Sandor P. Combined power and environmental optimization of the fuel type by reheating and thermal treatment processes, Proc. of the 21st World Gas Conference, Nice, Fr., 6–9 June 2000, 15 pp.

4. Martin P. Optimising performance, energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions, Iron & Steel Today, Nov. 2013, pp. 13–14.

5. Soroka B.S., Vorobiov M.V., Bershadskyi A.I. Natural gas saving by replacement the last for process gases while heating middle and high temperature furnaces. Part 1. Influence of low-calorie gases characteristics on fuel flow rate in furnaces, [Energy technologies and resource saving], 2016, (1), pp. 11–22. (Rus.).

6. Soroka B. Combined power and environmental optimization of fuel-oxidant composition and initial parameters: thermodynamic approach and industrial validation, International Journal of Energy for a Clean Environment, 2008, 9, Iss. 1–3, pp. 65–89.

7. Bretschneider B., Kurfurst J. Air pollution control technology (fundamental aspects of pollution control and environmental science), Amsterdam : Elsevier Publishing House, 1987, 296 pp. (Rus.)

8. Chesnokov Yu.N., Lisienko V.G., Lapteva A.V. Models and analyses of the Eemission of carbon dioxide in relation to metallurgical processes, International Journal of Energy for a Clean Environment. 2015, 16, Iss. 1–4, pp. 157–170.

9. Soroka B.S. Intensification of Processes in Fuel Furnaces, Kiev : Naukova Dumka, 1993, 416 p. (Rus.). 10. Pioro L.S., Pioro I.L., Kostyuk T.O., Soroka B.S. Industrial Application of Submerged Combustion Melters, Kiev : Fact publishers, 2006, 240 pp. (Rus.)

11. Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations, Conference of the Parties Twenty-first session, Paris, 30 November to 11 December 2015, 32 p. — Access mode: https://unfccc.int/resource/ docs/2015 /cop21/eng/l09r01.pdf

12. Kyoto protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change, United Nations, 1998, 20 p. — Access mode: kpeng.pdf

 

Krushnevich S.P., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Pyatnichko A.I., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Zhuk H.V., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Soltanibereshne M.A., PhD Student

The Gas Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev

39, Degtyarivska Str., 03113 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: admin@sergeyk.kiev.ua

 

Use of Pressure on the Gas Distribution Stations for Power Generation at Peak Periods

 

Before serving natural gas from the main gas pipeline to the consumer, he passes several stages of pressure reduction in the gas distribution stations. Reducing the pressure of natural gas is producing a significant amount of energy of cold. To prevent hydrate formation, gas is preheated to temperature which is guaranteed higher than expected point of hydrate formation on pressure reducer output. Reducing of pressure causes loss of potential energy, which was previously used for the compression of natural gas and in additional costs of natural gas for heating. If replace pressure reducer to expander, the energy from the gas pressure reducing can be partially repaired and used as the energy which was previously expended in compressing the gas. Negative factor of using of the expander is increase the temperature difference between its input and output to 5–8 times in comparison with the throttle, which requires increase to 7–11 times the volume of gas that is used to preheat the gas to an expander. For correct comparison, the authors carried out a fuel-economic calculation rational utilization pressure differential with the prices level of energy carriers in Ukraine in January 2016. Another positive factor in the production of electricity using the gas distribution stations is a partial compensation of peak loads on the electricity network of Ukraine, as natural gas consumption during peak periods also increases. Bibl. 8, Fig. 2, Tab. 2.

Key words: the gas distribution stationsh, hydraulic structures, electricity generation, energy utilization, pressure drop, natural gas.

 

References

 

1. Chernih A.P. Yspol’zovanye perepada davlenyja gaza, reducyruemogo na GRS y GRP dlja poluchenyja elektroenergyy y tepla, Visnyk inzhenernoi’ akademii’ Ukrai’ny, 2009, (1), pp. 251–256.

2. Podogrevately gaza. Zavod neftegazovih tehnologyj. — Access mode: http://zngt.com.ua/uk /kontakty/15-podogrevately-gaza

3. GazKondNeft’. Programmnaja systema dlja komp’juternogo modelyrovanyja tehnologyj promislovogo sbora y obrabotky pryrodnogo gaza y nefty, gazorazdelenyja y frakcyonyrovanyja nefty y kondensata, Termogaz. — Access mode: http://gascond oil.com/

4. U 2015 roci Ukrai’na skorotyla vykorystannja pryrodnogo gazu na 21 %, NAK «Naftogaz Ukrai’ny». — Access mode: http://www.naftogaz.com/

5. ÝG-1000, «Prezydent-Neva» Energeticheskyj centr. — Access mode: http://www.powercity.ru/site/ru/ catalog/48.html

6. Gazoturbynnye dvygately dlja yspol’zovanyja v gazotransportnyh setjah, «Zorja»–«Mashproekt», 2007, 16 p.

7. Taryfy na elektrychnu energiju z 01.01.2016 roku. —Access mode: http://kyivenergo.ua/ee-company/ tarifi

8. Prejskurant na pryrodnyj gaz z 1 sichnja 2016 roku, NAK «Naftogaz Ukrai’ny». — Access mode: http://www.naftogaz.com/files/Informaion/Naftogaz-gas-prices-Jan-2016.pdf

 

Petrov S.V.1, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Olhovikov O.V.2, Candidate of Economic Sciences

1 The Gas Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev

39, Degtyarivska Str., 03113 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: vizana.sp@gmail.com

2 The Center of Expert Technologies Ltd., Kiev

Mail Box 12, 02206 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: olegexpert5@gmail.com

 

Plasma Chemical Processing of Water Solutions with Use of the Pulsed Electrical Discharge. Creation of the Industrial Equipment (Review)

 

On the basis of modern representations about laws of underwater discharge phenomena caused by Impulse voltages the scientific and technical substantiation of construction of system of plasma processing of water solutions with scaling prospect on the big productivity is executed. The special attention is given to generating of highly reactionary plasma with low power consumption. It is reached at the expense of a number of technical decisions. The first - resonant split of an impulse into two channels. Thus from one source of power supply is generating two independent electric discharges with energies ~ 1 J are raised. The second - creation in interelectrode gaps of conditions for burn of the independent electrical discharges on borders of phase transition. Thus all volume of a processed solution is effectively sated with radicals OH. Besides, self-fixing (maintenance of average concentration of the OH in all volume of a solution) is provided at the expense of an optimum ratio of duration of an impulse to frequency. The sample of pilot installation aimed at large-scale use is created. The given hardware executed in modular version, is easily built in systems of processing of water solutions for purification of heavy metals, radionuclides, salts of rigidity, disinfection etc. Bib. 27, Fig. 8, Tab. 1.

Key words: the pulsed electrical discharge, a bubbled water solution, radicals OH, breakdown.

 

References

 

1. Hsu-Hui Cheng, Shiao-Shing Chen, Yu-Chi Wu and Din-Lit Ho., Non-Thermal Plasma Technology for Degradation of Organic Compounds in Wastewater Control : A critical review, J. Environ. Eng. Manage, 2007, 17 (6), pp. 427–433.

2. Polyakov O.V., Badalyan A.M., Bakhturova L.F. [Exits of reaction product of decomposition of water at discharge with electrolyte electrodes], [High Energy Chemistry], 2003, 37 (5), pp. 367–372. (Rus.)

3. Yong Yang, Young I. Cho, Alexander Fridman. Plasma Discharge in Liquid. Water Treatment, Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300, 2012, 175 p.

4. The UV/Oxidation Handbook. Solarchem Environmental Systems, Markham, Ontario, Canada, 1994, 68 ð.

5. Marode E. The mechanism of spark breakdown in air at atmospheric pressure between a positive point and a plane. I. Experimental: Nature of the streamer track, J. Appl. Phys., 1975, 46, pp. 2005–2015.

6. Malik M. A., Ghaffar A., and Malik S. A., Water purification by electrical discharges, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol, 2001, 10, pp. 82–91.

7. Lee C., Graves D. B., Lieberman M. A., and Hess D. W. Global Model of Plasma Chemistry in a High-Density Oxygen Discharge, J. Electrochem. Soc, 1994, 141, pp. 1546–1555.

8. Peyrous R., Pignolet P. and Held B. Kinetic simulation of gaseous species created by electrical discharge in dry or humid oxygen, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physic, 1989, 22, pp. 1658–1667.

9. Yasuoka K. and Sato K. Development of Repetitive Pulsed Plasmas in Gas Bubbles for Water Treatment, International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science & Technology, 2004, 3 (1), pp. 022–027.

10. Ryo Ono, Tetsuji Oda. Measurement of OH Radicals in Pulsed Corona and Pulsed Dielectric Barrier Discharge, IEEJ Transactions on Fundamentals and Materials, 2003, 123 (9), pp. 920–925.

11. Ryo Ono and Tetsuji Oda Optical Diagnosis of Pulsed Streamer Discharge under Atmospheric Pressure // International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science & Technology, 2007, 1 (2), pp. 123–129.

12. Nakagawara N., Yasuoka K., Ishii S. OH Radical Distribution in a Pulsed Atmospheric Discharge by LIF Measurement, 5th Asia-Pacific Int. Symp. on the Basics and Applications of Plasma Technology (APSPT-5). Takao, Taiwan, 2007, pp. 98–101.

13. Yong Yang. Plasma Discharge in Water and Its Application for Industrial Cooling Water Treatment,  Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Drexel University of Doctor of Philosophy, June 2011, 172 p.

14. Medvedev D.D. [Non-equilibrium plasma chemical processes in transitive pulse-periodic discharges in gases and liquids], Autoreferat, Moscow, 2012, 24 p. (Rus.)

15. Ushakov V.Ya, Klimkin V.F., Korobeinikov S.M., Lopatin V.V. [Impulse Breakdown of Liquids], Tomsk : Publishing house of the scientific and technical literature, 2005, 488 p. (Rus.)

16. Ushakov V.Ya. [Impulse Electrical Breakdown of Liquids], Tomsk : The publishing House of Tomsk state university, 1975, 256 p. (Rus.)

17. Jong-Hyuk Choi and Bok-Hee Lee. Electrical Properties Associated with Discharge Developments in Water Subjected to Impulse Voltages, Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, 2010, 5 (1), pp. 156–162.

18. Karpov D.I. [Modelling of initiation and growth of discharge structures in liquid dielectrics]. Autoreferat Ph.D., Tomsk, 2012, 25 p. (Rus.)

19. Lukes P., Ruma, Aoki N., Hosseini S.H.R., Sakugawa T., Akiyama H. Effects of pulse frequency on plasmachemical activity of electrical discharge in water, 31st ICPIG, Granada, Spain, July 14–19, 2013, Granada, 2013, pp. 10–11.

20. Vashov V.F., Kozlova N.V. [Pulse electric strength of water and granite], [Siberian Journal of Science], 2012, (1), pp. 79–85. (Rus.)

21. Poklonov S.G. [Definition of breakdown voltage of a water interelectrode gap], Electronnaya obrabotka materialov, 2010, (1), pp. 72–78. (Rus.)

22. Korobeynikov S.M., Melekhov A.V., Posukh V.G., Antonov V.M., Royak M.E. [Experimental investigation of bubbles behavior in water], Teplofizika vysokikh temperatur [High Temperature], 2001, 39 (2), pp. 163–168. (Rus.)

23. Yasuoka K. and Sato K. Development of Repetitive Pulsed Plasmas in Gas Bubbles for Water Treatment, International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science and Technology, 2009, 3, pp. 22–27.

24. Goryachev V.L., Ufimtsev A.A., Hodakovsky A.M. [About the mechanism of erosion of electrodes at pulse discharges in water with energy in an impulse _ 1 J], [Technical Physics Letters], 1997, 23 (10), pp. 25–29. (Rus.)

25. Goryachev V. L, Rutberg P.G, Fedukovich V.N. [About some properties of the impulse-periodic discharge with energy in an impulse _ 1 J in the water, applied to its cleaning], Teplofizika vysokih temperatur [High Temperature], 1996, 34 (5), pp. 757–760. (Rus.)

26. Bruce R. Locke. Environmental applications of electrical discharge plasma with liquid water. — A mini review, International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science and Technology, 2012, (6), pp. 194–203.

27. Shmelev V.M., Margolin A.D. [Propagation of an electric discharge over the surface of water and semiconductor], Teplofizika vysokih temperatur [High Temperature], 2003, 41 (6), pp. 735–741. (Rus.)

 

Petrash V.D., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Polomanniy A.A., PhD Student, Basist D.V., Candidate of Technical Sciences

Odessa State Academy of Construction and Architecture

4, Didrihson Str., 65029 Odessa, Ukraine, e-mail: petrant@ukr.net

 

Fuel Economy During Heat Supply for Buildings with Indoor Swimming Pools under the Conditions of Joint Operation of Heat Pump Plant and Standard Heat Generator

High-performance heat supply for swimming pools is determined by conditions of energy-saving heat consumption within the whole process of maintaining the set temperature of water in the swimming pool and environment in rooms with multi-stage  air exchange. The authors have developed the heat pump system to heat the water  consumed in the building, which allows both simultaneously and alternately recovering  the heat of waste water and air flows of exhaust system of ventilation. The fuel  economy during heat supply for buildings with indoor swimming pools under the conditions  of joint operation of heat pump plant and standard heat generator was determined  for the suggested system on the basis of research results. The dependencies of gas fuel economy on conversion ratio as well as minimal values of conversion ratios on  gas fuel cost are determined at different electricity tariffs. Taking into account current ratio of electricity costs and gas fuel costs the economy is about 58–86 % for realistically reachable values of conversion ratios j = 4–6. Bibl. 5, Fig. 3.

Key words: heat pumps, heat recovery, fuel economy, heat supply.

 

References

 

1. Petrash V.D. Polomannyj A.A. Teplosnabzhenie  plavatel’nyh bassejnov na osnove parokompres- sornoj  transformacii utilizirovannoj teploty otrabotannyh  vodnyh i vozdushnyh potokov. Energoefektivn³st’ v  bud³vnictv³ ta arh³tektury, Naukovo-tehn³chnij  zb³rnik Kyi’vs’kogo nacional’nogo universytetu  budivnyctva ta arhitektury, 2015, Iss. 7, pp. 198–204. (Rus.)

2. Petrash V.D. Teplonasosnye sistemy teplosnabzhenija, Odessa : Tipografija «VMV», 2014, 456 pp. (Rus.)

3. Petrash V.D., Sorokina I.V., Polomannyj A.A.  Sravnitel’nyj analiz jenergeticheskoj jeffektivnosti  utilizacii teploty udaljaemogo ventiljacionnogo vozduha, V³snik Odes’koi’ derzhavnoi’ akademii’  budivnyctva i arhitektury, 2010, Iss. 37, pp. 350–379. (Rus.)

4. Klimenko V.N. Nekotorye osobennosti primenenija  parokompressornyh teplovyh nasosov dlja utilizacii  sbrosnoj teploty otopitel’nyh kotlov, Promyshlennaja  teplotehnika, 2011, 33 (5), pp. 42–48. (Rus.)

5. Gorshkov V.G. Teplovye nasosy. Analiticheskij obzor, Primenenie teplovyh nasosov v Rossii : Spravochnik promyshlennogo oborudovanija, 2005, (4), pp. 148–175. (Rus.)

 

Bilousova N.A., Candidate of Technical Sciences, Herasymenko Yu.S., Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Red’ko R.M., Vichkan I.Yu.

National Technical University of Ukraine «KPI», Kiev

37, Peremohy Ave, build. 4, 03056 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: bilousova@xtf.kpi.ua

 

Modeling of Growth and Evaluation Anticorrosive Properties of Scale

 

The work concerns investigation of scale formation in the mode of boiler water with high hardness and definition of efficiency anticorrosive antiscalant action. The experimental  setup and method of determining the specific rate of scale formation and steel corrosion rates under controlled water supply, which provides a constant concentration of hardness salts, and a maximum rate of scale deposition, as well as the constancy of the concentration of antiscalant were developed. The functional dependencies of the specific scale mass gains in time for the investigated antiscalant HEDP, LWCh-1.1 (based on organophosphonates) and SeaQuest (based on polyphosphate) are linear. The structure  and anticorrosive properties of the formed scale depend not only on the nature and concentration  of antiscalant, but also from the fresh water replenishment rate. In comparative  tests with the same concentrations of reactants it found that the best inhibitory and  anti-scale properties have HEDP in the water with hardness of 20.2 mM/dm3. The developed technique and produced dependencies allow predicting antiscale and anticorrosive action of reagents for boiler of small power plants that operate without water treatment during the heating season. Bibl. 11, Fig. 4.

Key words: scale, scale growth rate, antiscalant, corrosion rate.

 

References

1. DNAOP 0.00.-1.26-96, [Terms of design and safe operation  of steam boilers with steam pressure not exceeding  0.07 MPa (0.7 kgf/cm2), boilers and water  heaters heat water with a temperature no higher  than 115 _C] , Kiev : State regulation of labor protection,  1996, 128 p. (Ukr.)

2. Balaban-Irmenin Ju.V., Suslov P.S. [Features of  antiscale in heating systems], Proceedings of the IV  Conference «Modern water treatment technology and  corrosion protection of equipment and scale formation  ». — [Electron resource]. — http://www.travers.su/upload/iblock/ b14/b14caa976c3907580eb8aa6a5b179ddf.pdf (Rus.)

3. Rudakova G.Ja., Samsonova N.K., Larchenko V.E. [Some aspects of the practice and use of complexions for water treatment], Jenergosberezhenie i vodopodgotovka, 2007, (2), pp. 32–33. (Rus.)

4. Driker B.N., Sikorskij I.P., Cirul’nikova N.V. [Explore  the use of zinc complexonates IOMC for the  inhibition of structural steels corrosion], Jenergosberezhenie  i vodopodgotovka, 2006 (2), pp. 7–9.  (Rus.)

5. Nesterenko S.V. [Feed water treatment technology to prevent corrosion and scaling processes on heat transfer  surfaces], Kommunal’noe hozjajstvo gorodov, 2008, Iss. 84, pp.190–194. (Rus.)

6. Pager S., Gerasimenko Ju. [Inhibiting effect of scale  formed in the ultrasonic field on heat transfer surfaces],  F³ziko-h³m³chna mehan³ka mater³al³v.  Problemi koroz³¿ ³ protikoroz³jnogo zahistu mater  ³al³v, L’v³v, 2012, 1 (9), pp. 272–278. (Ukr.)

7. DSTU 3895–99. (GOST 9.514-99). [Corrosion inhibitors of metals for water systems. Electrochemical  method for determining the protective ability]. (Ukr.)

8. Gerasimenko Ju.S., Nechaj M.V., Belousova N.A., Shlokova E.A. [Estimation of the accuracy of measurements of corrosion rate by the method of polarization resistance], Fiz.-him. mehanika materialov, 1996, 31 (3), pp. 302–306. (Rus.)

9. [Encyclopedia of heating. Deposits and abrasion]. — [Electron resource]. — http://www.rosteplo.  ru/w/ (Rus.)

10. Potapov S.A. [Complexions water-chemical mode of heat supply system. Problems and solutions], Materials of the conference «Modern technologies of water  treatment and protect equipment from corrosion», Moscow, June 2003, IREA, pp. 20–28. (Rus.)

11. Gerasimenko Ju., B³lousova N., Red’ko R. [Scale, its anticorrosive properties and regulation], 13th International  Conference «Corrosion 2016», Lvov, Ukraine, 14–15 June 2016, Lvov, 2016. (Ukr.)

 

Sklyarenko E.V., Bileka B.D., Doctor of Technical Sciences

Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev

2a , Zhelyabova Str., 03057 Kiev, Ukraine, e-mail: bilbo1@i.com. Ua

 

Experimental Study of Thermochemical Conversion Process for Plant Biomass into Combustible Gas and Biocarbon on Installation of Screw Type

 

Installation of screw type that implements the technology of thermochemical conversion  of small fraction plant biomass into combustible gas and biocarbon is proposed. The technology  is based on the use of high-speed pyrolysis of biomass in combined heating and  filtering high temperature products of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon gas through  the pressed movable layer. Temperature distribution of conversion products and their output  along the reactor length depending on process temperature, dwell time, heat transfer  medium parameters and initial plant biomass are investigated on the basis of the developed  mathematical model. The results of theoretical and experimental studies of the basic  regime parameters of process are presented. Bibl. 11, Fig. 4.

Key words: biomass, thermochemical conversion, pyrolysis, filtration of the gas heat medium, screw reactor.

 

References

 

1. Kozlov V.N. [Wood pyrolysis], Moscow : Izdatelstvo AN SSSR, 1952, 283 p. (Rus.)

2. Patent na vinah³d 43070 A Ukra¿na, MPK S10V  53/02 [Wood pyrolysis method], Nosach V.G.  ²vanova L.²., Javorovs’kij P.P., Skljarenko ª.V.,  Rod³onov V.².; vlasnik: ²nstitut tehn³chno¿  teplof³ziki NAN Ukra¿ni. — ¹ 2001020750; zajavl  02.02.2001, Publ. 15.11.2001, Bjul. 10. (Ukr.)

3. Patent na vinah³d 102789 C2 UA, MPK C 10 B  51/00, C 10 B 53/02, C 10 B 53/00, C 10 J 3/00, F 23 J 15/00, F 23 G 5/027, F 23 G 7/00, F 23 L  15/00, [Power and technological method of biomass  processing], Nosach V.G., Basok B.²., B³leka  B.D., Demidenko S.K., Pogozhev V. M.,  Skljarenko ª.V.; vlasnik: ²nstitut tehn³chno¿ teplof³ziki NAN Ukra¿ni. —¹ a 2012 07752; zajavl.: 25.06.2012. — Publ. 12.08.2013, Bjul. 15. (Ukr.)

4. Bashtovoj A.I., Skljarenko E.V. [Mathematical simulation  of wood gasification process], Promyshlennaja  teplotehnika, 2006, 28 (6), pp.71–77. (Rus.)

5. Nosach V.G., Skljarenko E.V., Rodionov V.I. [Investigation  of thermochemical processing of wood in  pressed movable and filtered layer], Promyshlennaja teplotehnika, 2005, 27 (5), pp. 66–69. (Rus.)

6. Berbenev V.I. Gas combustion in furnaces of heating  without oxidation and low oxidation heating, Leningrad  : Nedra, 1988, 175 p. (Rus.)

7. Zajchenko V.M., Shpil’rajn Ye.Ye., Shterenberg  V.Ja. [Complex processing of natural gas with hydrogen  production for power engineering and carbon  materials of wide industrial application],  Teplojenergetika, 2006, (3), pp. 51–56. (Rus.)

8. Zajchenko V.M., Kosov V.V., Kosov V.F., Sinel’shhikov V.A., Sokol G.F. [New composite carbon  material : Technology and prospects], Stal’,  2008, (4), pp. 77–84. (Rus.)

9. Zajchenko V.M., Kosov V.V., Kosov V.F.,  Sinel’shhikov V.A., Sokol G.F. [Experimental substantiation  of technology of complex processing of  wood waste and natural gas], Teplojenergetika,  2008, (7), pp. 47–53. (Rus.)

10. Kuznecov I.E., Troickaja I.M. [Air pool protection from pollution by harmful substances], Moscow :  Himija, 1979, 344 p. (Rus.)

11. Bileka B.D., Kabkov V.Ja., Skljarenko E.V.,  Pogozhev V.N. [Ways of improving thermal and environmental characteristics of gas turbine and gas piston motor — operated cogeneration plants], Aviacionno-kosmicheskaja tehnika i tehnologija, 2011, (10). (Rus.)